Assessment forlearning to identify prior knowledge and understanding and focusfor learning.
Assessingwhat chn already know about sound.
Ask chn tosit on the carpet, close their eyes and just listen, for 1 minute.While they sit quietly, chn listen to the room and the soundsaround them. Encourage them to listen to distance noises too, notjust sounds in the immediate vicinity.
After 1minute chn discuss what they heard with the person sitting next tothem. Did they hear something different? Can you still hearit?
One thy haveshared with their partner, pairs join with another pair and sharewhat they heard with them.
Once chnhave had the chance to share with other members of the class(Speaking and Listening) feedback sounds they could hear andcompile a class list.
Using achart drawn on flipchart or A3 paper, elicit from chn what theyalready know about sound. Then chn discuss, in the pairs, what theymight want to know about sound.
Each childthen writes on a piece of paper, post it note or whatever theteacher decides, one thing they want to know/question they want toanswer about sound. (Teachers will try to incorporate these and/oranswer these in the following lessons).
Identifylocal sound sources.
Identifywhat they already know about sound.
Articulateone thing they would like to know/one question they would like tobe able to answer.
SAFETY Children shouldbe warned that loud sounds including loud music can damage theear.
SAFETY Warn children ofthe danger of putting objects in the ear unless they are speciallydesigned for this eg earplugs.
To know that soundsare made when objects or materials vibrate.
Prior to thislesson you need to have asked the children to bring in an emptytissue box or cereal box.
Remind the chn thatlast lesson we looked at what we already know about sound, so askthe chn is anyone know what makes sound? Where does sound comefrom? Discuss that a sound is made when something vibrates. What isvibration? Show chn, using a ruler, half off, half on the table.Ping the end of the ruler handing over the edge of the table, andchn watch it vibrate (move side to side quickly).
Ask chn to lightlyput their fingertips on the front of the throat and hum with you.Ask what they feel. They should feel their throat vibrating.
Tell chn that we aregoing to be investigating with elastic bands. Thick and thinelastic bands. Which do you think will vibrate faster? Ask chn totalk to their talk partner about which they think will vibratefaster. Ask them to make a prediction.
1. Chn start theinvestigation, by making their prediction in the Sciencebooks.
In mixedability pairs, one child get a thick elastic band, one child gets athin elastic band. They cut a hole in the cereal box (or not if itis tissue box), wrap the elastic band around the box and pluck theband where the hole is. Watch and compare it to the other of thepair.
Give the chnchance to compare boxes with another pair. Which vibrates thefastest?
3. Chn write up theirfindings. Was their prediction correct?
HA Can youexplain why the elastic bands vibrate faster?
Make a sensibleprediction.
SAFETY Children shouldbe warned that at no point should the elastic bands be used asmissiles or catapults.
That the termpitch describes how high or low a sound is.
That high and lowsounds can be loud or soft..
To suggest how tochange the pitch and loudness of an instruments sound and to carryout simple tests to investigate.
Discuss theconcept of pitch describing how high or low a sound is. Show anexample using 2 chime bars which are obviously different in sizeand pitch. (Some children will not be able to recognise thedifference, in which case, relate the sounds to a colour. Thehigher pitched sound is a bright yellow and the lower pitch soundis dark blue. This will help the child syasthetically see thesound in their mind.)
Discussthat, generally speaking, of two items made of the same material,one small, one large, the small one will have the higher pitch(sound) when tapped etc and the larger will have the lowerpitch.
To testthis, ask children to predict which will have the higher pitch, amilk bottle with a little water in or a milk bottle with lots ofwater in. Show the children the milk bottles (or any kind of bottleas long as they are identical). Children make a prediction in theirScience books.
Childrenthen test their prediction by either tapping the bottle above thewater line, or by blowing across the top of the bottle.
Were youright or wrong? Was your prediction correct? Children note underResults which bottle produced the higher pitched sound and whichproduced the lower pitched sound.
How couldyou alter the pitch of the notes being produced?
How couldyou alter the volume of the notes being produced?
Make a sensibleprediction.
Children should bewarned not to play with water and not to break the bottles.
Thatvibrations from sound sources can travel through differentmaterials to the ear
To draw conclusionsabout sounds from their observations
Tolisten to the sounds made, to record results in a suitable tableand decide whether they support the prediction made
Lesson1 You will need something which makesnoise for this investigation.
Put the wordinsulation on the board. What does this say and mean? Discussthat insulation keeps something in or something out. Come up with adefinition and write it on the board.
Highlightthat insulation is most often used to contain heat. Where do youknow of the use of insulation? Children discuss in pairs. Childrenmay suggest insulation in a thermos flask. Also, discuss with thechildren the fact that their homes are insulated to keep in theheat in during the winter.
What elsemight we want to insulate from escaping? (Hopefully a child willnotice the learning objective or recognise the topic we arecovering and say sound). Discuss where and why sound proofingmight be used, suggesting recording studios etc, to keep in musicor sound which might be quite loud, if the people or buildingsaround do not wish to be disturbed.
What kindsof materials might be good for providing insulation? What qualitiesmight be needed in the material?
Childrendiscuss what qualities might be suitable to contain sound. Thick orthin? Fluffy or condensed? Think about what kind of material willvibrate and pass on the vibrations and what kinds of materials willabsorb the vibrations and not pass them on. Show the children the 3materials we will investigate with. Cotton wool, cardboard and tinfoil. Which of these do you think will be the best at insulating?Discuss and feedback ideas and suggestion.
Childrenbegin the investigations in their books, write the aim of theinvestigation To find a suitable material for insulating sound,and make a prediction about what materials will make the bestinsulation.
Splitchildren into 3 groups. Give them a shoe box, or any kind of box,for each group. Give one group the tin foil, one group thecardboard and one group the cotton wool. Children line the entireof the inside of the box with their material.
To test theboxes, bring the class back together on the carpet. Put somethingin one box at a time which makes noise.
Childrenrate how much noise gets through each box by listening and usingtheir own discretion, and giving it a mark out of 10 for how muchnoise got through. (1 being nothing got through, and 10 being therewas no insulation).
Discusswhich material provided the best insulation and why this wasso.
Whatqualities are important in providing insulation? Discuss.
Childrenrecord their results in the form of a table and make a conclusionabout the kind of material which makes the best insulation in theirbooks.
Make a sensibleprediction.
Children should bewarned that very loud noise can be harmful to ourears.